long using life coal fired steam boiler
Recently, Hangzhou Provincial People's Government for the quality of atmospheric environment issues issued a deadline for compliance plan, as follows.
First, the situation and challenges
Since the "Atmospheric ten" implementation of Hangzhou to build an ecological civilization as a guide to improve the quality of atmospheric environment as the goal, carry out air pollution prevention and control actions to protect the G20 summit in Hangzhou as an opportunity to promote a strong "coal-fired flue gas, industrial emissions , vehicle exhaust, dust gray gas, urban and rural exhaust "other" gas cohabitation ", strengthen regional joint prevention and control, air pollution control and achieved remarkable results, no built coal-fired thermal power, iron and steel producers no, no emission vehicles "three noes" urban atmospheric environmental quality continues to improve.
(A) Key Performance
1, ambient air quality improved significantly.
In the case of the national economy with an average annual growth of 9.1% of the "second five" major pollutants emission reduction achieved remarkable, sulfur dioxide, total nitrogen oxide emissions compared to 2010, respectively, decreased by 21.9%, 26.5%, exceeding the state-assigned the reduction targets and tasks.
2, energy and industrial structure gradually optimized.
The city's total energy consumption growth narrowed year by year, total energy consumption in 2015 was 39.48 million tons of standard coal, an average annual increase of "Twelfth Five-Year" period is only 3.4%, compared with the "Eleventh Five-Year" down 2.1 percentage points.
3, industrial pollution prevention deepened.
Promoting desulfurization and denitrification and dust removal facilities, coal-fired thermal power generating units are completed desulfurization, denitrification facilities, a total of 87 coal-fired thermal power generating units ultra-low emissions transformation.
4. The motor vehicle exhaust pollution prevention and continuous progress.
"Twelve Five" period, and comprehensively promote the yellow car out of work in 2015, the city basically eliminated emission vehicles.
5, comprehensively promote urban and rural waste gas treatment.
"Twelve Five" period, to strengthen the construction site dust management, the establishment of civilized city construction sites and construction dust pollution comprehensive rectification work leading group, the establishment of municipal, district, enterprise level management network.
6, continue to strengthen capacity building.
"Twelve Five" period, the construction of Hangzhou, air pollution control system for continuous improvement, introduced the "Hangzhou pollution prevention provisions of the atmosphere", and the issuance of the annual air pollution control plan and supporting the implementation of assessment methods.
(B) there is a problem
1, ambient air quality improvement into the bottleneck.
In recent years, the effectiveness of atmospheric environmental quality improved significantly, but control "Ambient Air Quality Standard" (GB3095-2012) secondary standards are still gaps.
2. Regional collaborative governance is still run-in period.
The analysis results Hangzhou PM2.5 sources, the contribution to the local discharge air in an urban environment PM2.5 concentration 62% -82%, about 72% on average. Regional transport to urban ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 contribution accounts for 18% -38%, an average of about 28%, in different seasons affect the Hangzhou area varies. A higher proportion of regional transport and complexity of the transmission source region to control air pollution in Hangzhou more difficult to establish and improve regional air pollution is critical institutional mechanisms of joint prevention and control.
3, into the deep water of air pollution control.
In recent years, Hangzhou, air pollution prevention and control work has achieved remarkable success, but there are still many "shortcomings" in the current governance of air pollution, structural, further highlights the deep-seated problems.
(1) optimize the industrial structure needs to continue, heavy pollution in some areas, high energy-consuming industries and the "messy dirty" business issues are still quite prominent.
Total coal (2) Energy consumption is still high, the use of natural gas supply capacity and scale need to be strengthened, industrial parks (industrial parks) are still blind spots of central heating, renewable energy development and utilization efforts still need to increase.
(3) heavy end of the treatment, the light source control and cleaner production, the work of "second five" major emission control measures revolve around the end of pollutants on source control and cleaner production process is still insufficient attention.
(4) With SO2, NOx reduction work continued in-depth, project emissions space shrinking, VOCs emissions is more a lack of technical means, the rigidity of the vehicle population growth, vehicles, ships and non-road mobile machinery and other mobile source pollution control to be a breakthrough. With the difficulty of the work of prevention and control of atmospheric pollution key areas continue to increase, the city is still on air pollution control into the deep water.
4, the basic work is still weak period.
Municipal government attaches great importance to air pollution control work, work-related basis more solid, but there are still many weak links. Hangzhou, organization and leadership of atmospheric pollution control systems should be strengthened, the department division of labor, the working mechanism of collaborative governance needs improvement. Local standards should be further improved, pollution resources and a list of atmospheric pollution still need to be updated regularly.
Learning materials heat boiler 1, the boiler is three safety accessories: water gauge, pressure gauge, safety valve. 2, the normal operation of the boiler water level is 0 ± 40mmH2O, the maximum does not exceed 0 ± 80mmH2O, the normal water pressure of 5.5MPa, to allow the fluctuation range of 4.5-6.0MPa, normal pressure boiler feed water temperature should be 105 degrees Celsius. 3, steam flow is not larger than the normal water boiler feedwater flow reasons, the measuring device instrument to do so. 4, the steam flow rate is less than the abnormal overheating damage reasons of water flow, water wall damage, damage to the economizer, the boiler is full of water, measuring device instrument to do so. 5, points on the furnace process CCP washed three times water gauge, pressures of 0.05-0.1MPa, 1.0MPa, 2.8MPa. 6, it is determined whether the normal water table and put into operation to see if the water level fluctuates slightly exemplar. 7, the boiler water pressure test and the test is divided into P overpressure test of two, when the water pressure P test, the boosting speed of not more than 0.35MPa 0.5MPa down rate does not exceed per minute. To the boiler water blowdown 8, the pressure in the boiler shutdown boiler water temperature drops below 80 degrees Celsius. 9, the position of each ordinary pressure test is hydrophobic doors: a door opening, the second door is closed. 10, the boiler-burner with a swirling-type and DC type two. 11, elemental analysis of coal with a composition: C, H, O, N, S, moisture, ash. 12, the main component of the blast furnace gas is: CO.'S time, nitrogen gas, blast furnace gas pressure is lower than 1500Pa, the user must reduce the amount of gas. Fire stop its pressure 1000Pa, working pressure 4000-8000Pa, the upper limit for the dangerous pressure 10000Pa, the lower limit is 2000Pa. 13, the main component of the coke oven gas: CO, nitrogen gas, coke oven gas pressure is lower than 1500Pa, must reduce the amount of gas, which pressure is 500Pa fire stop, working pressure 5000-7000Pa, the upper limit is 8000 Pa pressure the risk, the lower limit is 1500Pa . 14, the high, the main features of coke oven gas is flammable, explosive, toxic. 15, proximate analysis of coal with a volatile content, fixed carbon, ash and moisture. 16, boiler water circulation loop fault has stagnated, cycling back down the tube vaporization, soft drinks stratification. 17, the pulverized coal burning furnace radiation heat from a heat source of flame, high temperature flue gas convection heat. 18, the pulverized coal ignition and quick combustion conditions are sufficiently high temperature furnace, a sufficient amount of air mixed well, pulverized coal and air. Enough burn time. 19, ignition of pulverized coal into the combustion stage, the combustion stage, burning ember stage. 20, boiler mechanical rolling bearing does not exceed a predetermined temperature 80 degrees Celsius, the slide bearing does not exceed 40 degrees Celsius. 21, with factors affecting the steam load boiler water, boiler water salinity, pressure change, the vapor space of the drum height. 22, the principle of the steam separator drum gravity separation, inertial separation, centrifugal separation, separation of the water film. 23, the first ignition of the pulverized coal volatiles, fixed carbon is the latest ignition, the combustion of carbon is the longest. 24, steam soluble salt contaminated steam quality reasons, mechanical carryover. 25, the normal operation of the boiler drum water level in the glass tube than the water level high 50MM, when the water level in the steam table overall door leak, the water level high water table, the total gate leakage when the water level is low. 26, a method for enhancing heat transfer with a heat transfer coefficient is increased, raising the average temperature difference between the heat transfer, the heat transfer area is increased. 27, into the boiler furnace wall refractory layer, three-layer insulating layer and the sealing layer. 28, light blue flame blast furnace gas, as a bright golden yellow flame co-firing light yellow flame, coal, coke oven gas when the combustion gas as a combustion time. 29, the boiler by the "pot" and "furnace" composition, "pan" refers to a soft drink system is mainly composed of the drum, the downcomer, the header, waterwall, economizer, superheater composition; "oven" refers to a combustion system, a furnace, a burner, an air preheater composition. Calorific value 3.27GJ 30,1 tons of steam.
A bunch of roots of the impact of vertical long using life coal fired steam boiler efficiency: basically all over the country are conducting high-profile coal to natural gas movement, vertical steam boiler use, very large cuts infected micro particles, the same time nitrogen oxides and other toxic gases the smoke has also been suppressed. Vertical steam boiler efficiency is a measure of critical standards, common look behind a pile of roots of the impact of vertical steam boiler efficiency. After investigation authorities, vertical steam boiler heat loss is probably due to include these two: undesirable heat loss and flue gas emissions than adequate combustion air. Emission reduction in heat loss can be retrofitted aft vertical steam boiler exhaust heat recirculation installation, or use more advanced types of condensing boiler.
1 ton gas boiler running on natural gas cost calculation users in the purchase of boiler equipment, in addition to considering the quality and price of the boiler, operating costs are also most concerned about. As a large industrial boilers special equipment, operating costs after start-up is not low. Today, small series to calculate the running costs of natural gas boiler, to help you better understand the gas boiler. On the whole, operating costs including natural gas boiler: fuel costs, utilities, labor costs, maintenance costs. Run 1 ton gas long using life coal fired steam boiler 1 hour example to calculate the cost of running the boiler. 1, the cost of gas, 1 tons of gas steam boiler steam rated the amount of 1 ton / hour, different in different parts of the integrated natural gas quality and other factors, natural gas consumption in the 70-80 cubic meters / hour, according to our understanding, now on the market of natural gas the price of 3.5 yuan / cubic calculated (prices slightly floating), gas consumption is calculated according to 75 cubic meters. Gas Cost: 1 × 75 × 3.5 = 262.5 / hour 2, the cost of water, gas steam boiler 1 tons an hour to convert 1 ton 1 ton of steam into the water, because the middle of demineralized water and sewage water treatment needs, 1 ton of normal use of the steam boiler takes about 1.1 tons of water, according to our understanding, the market price is now floating around 3 yuan / ton. The cost of water: 1.1 × 3 = 3.3 yuan / hour 3, the cost of electricity, the main fuel gas steam boiler 1 ton electric burner position and pumps, other mostly weak. Burner using power 1.5KW, use the pump power of 1.4KW, other weak power use of about 1KW. During normal use of the boiler, electrical power is 0.65 times the full load power, calculate the total electric power (1.5KW + 1.4KW + 1KW) × 0.65 = 2.535KW. The electricity is $ 1 / calculation. Electricity costs: 2.535 × 1 = 2.535 / hour 4, labor costs, fast boiler into gas boiler market is the intelligent automatic high boiler plant, only coal fireman who patrol back and forth without the need to manually add fuel high intensity work. Fireman who according to 3000 yuan / month wage, working 12 hours a day, in two shifts. Labor costs: 3000 × 2 times / 30 days / 24 h = 8.33 yuan / 5 hours, gas boilers, and maintenance costs of model SZS fast WNS square type gas boiler in the factory after the quenching treatment and a full range of testing, failure rate Very low, response, post-boiler maintenance costs are reduced. If it is a gas station one ton steam boiler, the maintenance cost is about 2000 a year on it. According to 365 days a year, eight hours a day of computing time, the boiler operation cost per hour is: 2000/365/8 = 0.68 yuan. Combining these five aspects of the cost of inputs, it can be summed up 1 ton operating cost per hour of gas boilers: 262.5 yuan / hour + 3.3 yuan / hour +2.535 yuan / hour +8.33 yuan / hour +0.68 yuan / hour = 277.345 yuan / hour . In addition Xiao Bian also like to remind you that the above calculations are based on the cost of using boiler operating at full capacity, but due to the use of the boiler boiler enterprises have different needs, it may not be fixed to keep running at full capacity. Therefore, some of the actual running costs of the boiler than it is now calculated 277.345 yuan low. If you have more questions about natural gas boiler in the running cost, please direct online consultation fast boiler for more details boiler equipment!